Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel

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Frederick II
Portrait by Johann Heinrich Tischbein
Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Reign 1 February 1760 –
31 October 1785
Predecessor William VIII
Successor William IX
Born 14 August 1720
Died 31 October 1785 (aged 65)
Weißenstein Palace, Kassel
Spouse Princess Mary of Great Britain (m 28 June 1740)
Margravine Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt (m 10 January 1773)
Issue Prince William
William I, Elector of Hesse
Prince Charles
Prince Frederick
House Hesse
Father William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Mother Dorothea Wilhelmina of Saxe-Zeitz
Religion Roman Catholicism,
prev. Calvinism

Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (14 August 1720 – 31 October 1785) was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) from 1760 to 1785. He ruled as an enlightened despot, and raised money by renting soldiers (called "Hessians") to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War.

First marriage[edit]

On 8 May 1740, by proxy in London, and on 28 June 1740 in person in Kassel, Frederick married Princess Mary of Great Britain, fourth daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach.


  1. William, Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Kassel (25 December 1741 – 1 July 1742)
  2. William I, Elector of Hesse (3 June 1743 – 27 February 1821)
  3. Charles (19 December 1744 – 17 August 1836), father of Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel and grandfather of Christian IX of Denmark.
  4. Frederick (11 September 1747 – 20 May 1837), father of Prince William of Hesse-Kassel and grandfather of Queen Louise of Denmark.

Second marriage[edit]

10 January 1773, in Berlin, he married Princess Philippine, daughter of Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt and Sophia Dorothea of Prussia. They had no issue.

Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Born: 14 August 1720 Died: 31 October 1785
Regnal titles
Preceded by Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Succeeded by