Pedro Henrique, Prince of Brazil

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Pedro Henrique
Head of the House of Orléans-Braganza (disputed)
Tenure 14 November 1921 – 5 July 1981
Predecessor Isabel
Successor Luiz
Born Prince Pedro Henrique of Grão-Pará
(1909-09-13)13 September 1909
Boulogne-Billancourt, France
Died 5 July 1981(1981-07-05) (aged 71)
Vassouras, Brazil
Spouse
(m. 1937⁠–⁠1981)
Issue Luiz, Prince of Brazil
Prince Eudes of Brazil
Bertrand, Prince of Brazil
Princess Isabel Maria of Brazil
Prince Pedro of Brazil
Prince Fernando Diniz of Brazil
Antônio, Prince Imperial of Brazil
Eleonora, Princess of Ligne
Prince Francisco Maria of Brazil
Prince Alberto Maria of Brazil
Princess Maria Teresa of Brazil
Princess Maria Gabriela of Brazil
Full name
Pedro Henrique Afonso Felipe Maria Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga
House Orléans-Braganza
Father Luís, Prince Imperial of Brazil
Mother Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Burial Cemetery of the Brotherhood of Our Lady of Conception, Vassouras, Brazil
Signature Signature of Prince Pedro Henrique.
Religion Roman Catholic

Dom Pedro Henrique (13 September 1909 – 5 July 1981), nicknamed the Expected Prince (Portuguese: o Príncipe Esperado) was the head of the Vassouras branch of the House of Orléans-Braganza and a claimant to the defunct Brazilian throne. He claimed the headship of the Imperial House of Brazil as his grandmother's successor, recognized by her as such, in opposition to the Petrópolis branch claim led by the senior branch of the family in the figure of Pedro de Alcântara and later Pedro Gastão.

Pedro Henrique was born during the exile of the Brazilian Imperial Family. He was the firstborn of Luís, Prince Imperial of Brazil, second son of Isabel, Regent of Brazil. Due to the resignation of his uncle, Prince Pedro de Alcântara, a year before his birth, and considering the validity of that act, Pedro Henrique was born as heir presumptive to the Brazilian throne until the premature death of his father, when he became heir apparent. After the revocation of the banishment of the Imperial Family, Pedro Henrique saw Brazil for the first time at the age of 13. Despite the pending over the legality of his uncle's resignation, his uncle never challenged his nephew's claim. Pedro Henrique actively promoted the monarchical cause in Brazil associated with national conservatism, which earned him the recognition of far-right Brazilian Patrianovist Imperial Action.

In the 1960s Pedro Henrique became a member of the ultramontane Catholic group Tradition, Family, Property, initiating his successors as pupils of the traditional catholic intellectual Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira. Despite his efforts in favor of monarchism in Brazil and his recognition by the more conservative sections of society, Pedro Henrique's image was overshadowed by that of his cousin Pedro Gastão, who actively disputed the leadership of the imperial house and was much more popular with both government authorities, society and international royalty.

Birth, childhood and life in Europe

Pedro Henrique was born in 1909 in France at Boulogne-sur-Seine during the exile of the Brazilian imperial family, which had been deposed in 1889. His father, Luís, Prince Imperial of Brazil, was the second son of Isabel, Regent of Brazil, and Prince Gaston of Orléans, Count of Eu. His mother was Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.[1] His paternal grandmother Isabel was the heiress to the defunct Brazilian throne and the last Brazilian monarch to have her position officialy acknowledged by other countries' governments. The year before Pedro Henrique's birth, she recognized his father, Luís, as the heir to the succession when Luís's elder brother, Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará, signed a renunciation of his claim to the throne on behalf of himself and his descendants.[2][3]

Prince Pedro Henrique aged five with his grandmother, Empress Isabel I of Brazil, 1914.

Thus, at birth Prince Pedro Henrique received the title of Prince of Grão-Pará, according to Article 105 of the Constitution of 1824. He was baptized in the chapel of the Château d'Eu with the waters of the fountain taken from Largo da Carioca, in Rio de Janeiro. His godparents were his paternal grandmother, the de jure Empress Isabel of Brazil, and maternal grandfather, Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta and Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies. The prince and his family lived between the Castle d'Eu and the palace of Boulogne-sur-Seine, both belonging to the Imperial Family. He was raised primarily by his grandmother Isabel and numerous preceptors imbued to educate him as future Emperor of Brazil.[4]

In 1920, his father died in Cannes, France, victimized by injuries acquired in the trenches of the First World War. Also in 1920, the decree of banishment is revoked by the then President Epitácio Pessoa. The grandfather of Prince Pedro Henrique, Count d'Eu, leads part of the Imperial Family back in Brazil. Isabel didn't travel because she was old and sick, making the trip not recommended. Still, Prince Pedro Henrique and Count d'Eu did not stay long in Brazil, because their lives were consolidated in Europe, and decided to go back there.[5]

Given the death of his father in 1920, Prince Pedro Henrique became Prince Imperial of Brazil, but on 14 November 1921, the would-be Empress Isabel died at the Castle d'Eu. So, at age of 12 Prince Pedro Henrique became the head of the imperial family and thus The Prince of Brazil.[6] Had he became Emperor, his imperial name would possibly have been "His Imperial Majesty Dom Pedro III, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil",[7] considering his uncle's renunciation as valid.

He continued living in France with his mother, Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Sicilies, where she thought he could get better education with his brothers Luiz Gastão, Prince Imperial of Brazil and Princess Pia Maria of Brazil.

Formation

Prince Pedro Henrique's marriage to Princess Maria Elisabeth of Bavaria, with guests like King Alfonso III of Spain and Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg.

Pedro Henrique was educated in France at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris in Paris.[8] He was described by his grandmother as "a very intelligent child".[9] He graduated in Social and Political Sciences by the University of Sorbonne, in Paris.

In 1925, at the age of 16, the Brazilian government ruled against his request to serve in the military.[10]

Marriage and issue

He married in Leutstetten on 17 August 1937 and religiously in the chapel of the Schloss Nymphenburg, in Munich, 19 August 1937 with Princess Maria Elisabeth, baptized Marie Elisabeth Françoise Josèphe Thérèse von Wittelsbach (born in Nymphenburg 9 September 1914), Princess of Bavaria, first-born daughter of Prince Franz of Bavaria and Princess Elisabeth of Croÿ. They had 12 children. This marriage served as a pretext for the Duke of Bavaria to confront the Nazi government, as sovereigns and several Heads of Royal Houses were invited, among them the Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg and King Alfonso XIII of Spain, exiled due to the Spanish Civil War; the top commanders of the Nazi party were not invited.

The couple resided primarily in France; during several times tried to live in Brazil, but were impeded due to the difficulties of locomotion generated by the Second World War.

Life in Brazil

Prince Pedro Henrique along with the Imperial Family during the return of Empress Isabel's remains to Brazil in 1973.

Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará, died in 1940.[11]

Pedro Henrique was only able to return to Brazil in 1945, when the Second World War ended. He settled first in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, in the Imperial Palace of the Grão-Pará, and then in the neighborhood of Retiro, in Petrópolis. His cousin, Prince Pedro Gastão, the eldest son of Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará, challenged Pedro Henrique's right to the succession in 1946,[8] on the basis that his father's renunciation had no legal force.

In 1951, D. Pedro Henrique bought a farm, Fazenda Santa Maria, in the town of Jacarezinho, interior of Paraná, where he launched as a farmer. In 1955 the Prince was urged by members of the upper ranks of the Brazilian military to accept the offer of restoration of the monarchy through a military coup that became apparent through the political crisis that the country was passing. The Prince refused the offer, saying he wanted the restoration by democratic means. In 1965, he returned to the state of Rio de Janeiro, settling in Vassouras, an important city in the days of Empire for coffee production. On site called Santa Maria, Prince Pedro Henrique resided until the end of his life.[12] He was active in the monarchist movement.[8]

On his death in 1981, Pedro Henrique's claim to the throne passed to his eldest son, Luiz, Prince of Brazil.

Titles, styles and honors

Styles of
Prince Pedro Henrique
Reference styleHis Imperial and Royal Highness
Spoken styleYour Imperial and Royal Highness
Alternative styleSire

Titles and styles

  • 13 September 1909 - 26 March 1920: His Imperial and Royal Highness The Prince of Grão-Pará[13][14]
  • 26 March 1920 - 14 November 1921: His Imperial and Royal Highness The Prince Imperial of Brazil[13][14]
  • 14 November 1921 - 5 July 1981 His Imperial and Royal Highness The Head of the Imperial House of Brazil[13][15][16][14]

Honors

Dom Pedro Henrique was Grand Master of the following Brazilian dynastic orders:[17]

He was a recipient of the following foreign honors:[18]

Ancestry

Posterity

Pedro Henrique married Princess Maria Elisabeth of Bavaria at Schloss Nymphenburg, Bavaria, on 19 August 1937.[19] They had twelve children.[6]

Name Birth Death Notes
Prince Luiz (1938-06-06) 6 June 1938 (age 86) Head of the Imperial House of Brazil[6]
Prince Eudes (1939-06-08) 8 June 1939 (age 85) married 1) Ana Maria de Moraes e Barros (divorced) 2) Mercedes Neves da Rocha. He renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 3 June 1966.[6]
Prince Bertrand (1941-02-02) 2 February 1941 (age 83)
Princess Isabel (1944-04-05)5 April 1944 5 November 2017(2017-11-05) (aged 73)
Prince Pedro of Brazil (1945-12-01) 1 December 1945 (age 78) married Maria de Fátima Lacerda Rocha. He renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 28 December 1972.[6]
Prince Fernando Diniz of Brazil (1948-02-02) 2 February 1948 (age 76) married Maria de Graça Baere de Araújo. He renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 24 February 1972.[6]
Prince Antônio (1950-06-24) 24 June 1950 (age 74) married Princess Christine of Ligne
Princess Eleonora (1953-05-20) 20 May 1953 (age 71) married Michel, 14th Prince of Ligne
Prince Francisco Maria of Brazil (1955-04-06) 6 April 1955 (age 69) married Claudia Regina Godinho. He renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 11 December 1980.
Prince Alberto Maria of Brazil (1957-06-23) 23 June 1957 (age 67) married Maritza Ribas Bockel. He renounced his rights of succession to the Brazilian throne for himself and his descendants on 22 December 1982.
Princess Maria Teresa of Brazil (1959-07-14) 14 July 1959 (age 65) married Jan Hessel de Jong (1953–)
Princess Maria Gabriela (1959-07-14) 14 July 1959 (age 65) married Theodore Senna de Hungria Machado

Notes

  1. Montgomery-Massingberd 1977, pp. 43, 50–51.
  2. Montgomery-Massingberd 1977, pp. 43, 50.
  3. Barman 2002, p. 227.
  4. SANTOS (2006: 61)
  5. SANTOS (2006: 56–58).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Montgomery-Massingberd 1977, p. 51.
  7. ORLEANS E BRAGANÇA, Pia Maria (1990: 8)
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Montgomery-Massingberd 1977, p. 43.
  9. Barman 2002, p. 228.
  10. SANTOS (2006: 64).
  11. Montgomery-Massingberd 1977, p. 50.
  12. SANTOS (2006: 109).
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 SANTOS, Armando Alexandre dos. Dom Pedro Henrique, o Condestável das Saudades e da Esperança. São Paulo: Artpress, 2006, pp. 24-38
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Buyers, Christopher. "The Bragança Dynasty - Prince Pedro Henrique". Royal Ark. Retrieved 2017-03-19.
  15. Buyers, Christopher. "The Bragança Dynasty". Royal Ark. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
  16. BARMAN, Roderick J., Princesa Isabel do Brasil: gênero e poder no século XIX, UNESP, 2005
  17. SANTOS (2006: 56–136).
  18. SANTOS (2006: 136).
  19. Montgomery-Massingberd 1977, pp. 43, 51.

References

See more

  • Barman, Roderick J. (2002). Princess Isabel of Brazil: gender and power in the nineteenth century. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources. ISBN 0-8420-2846-3. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1977). Burke's Royal Families of the World, Volume 1: Europe & Latin America. London: Burke's Peerage. ISBN 0-85011-023-8.
  • ORLEANS E BRAGANÇA, Pia Maria de. Minha Mãe, a Princesa Imperial Viúva. Rio de Janeiro: Edição da Autora, 1990. Tradução de José Ubaldino Motta do Amaral.
  • SANTOS, Armando Alexandre dos. Dom Pedro Henrique, o Condestável das Saudades e da Esperança. São Paulo: Artpress, 2006
Pedro Henrique, Prince of Brazil
Cadet branch of the House of Orléans
Born: 13 September 1909
Brazilian royalty
Preceded by The Prince of Brazil
(Disputed)

14 November 1921 – 5 July 1981
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prince Imperial of Brazil
(Disputed)

26 March 1920 – 14 November 1921
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prince of Grão-Pará
(Disputed)

13 September 1909 – 26 March 1920
Succeeded by
None
Titles in pretence
Preceded by — TITULAR —
Emperor of Brazil
One of two pretenders to the Brazilian throne
14 February 1921 – 5 July 1981
Reason for succession failure:
Empire abolished in 1889
Succeeded by